Smt. S. B. Gardi Department of English,
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University Bhavnagar
M.A. Semester 3
English Language Teaching 1
Unit 1: The role of English in India
- The creative exploitation of linguistic resources reflects the values of different socio-cultural traits.
- The Indian reality is manifested at many levels of language organization from borrowing, lone creatings to idiom, metaphor, symbolism etc. brought to the English language
- English is taught in India as a second language. The creative exploration of linguistic resources reflects the values of different socio-cultural traits. The Indian reality is manifested at many levels of language organization from borrowing, lone creating to idioms, metaphor, symbolism etc. brought to the English language.
- The paper describes how English is made to fulfill the function of a second language. The transition is shown with examples from Fire on the Mountain by Anita Desai, Nectar in a Sieve byKamala Markandaya and R.K. Narayan’s The Dark Room.
- The creative writings of Indian writers who have a near native control of the linguistic codes illustrate how English is used creatively and thereby the socio-cultural code infused in it. Manipulation with English is possible since it is a second language.
- Christopherson differentiates foreign and second language on the following parameters:
- a) A foreign language is a language which is not one’s own, even though one may have a very good knowledge of it. A second language, on the other hand, is a language which is one’s own though not the first in order to importance nor usually the first to be learnt.
- b)A foreign language is used for the purpose of absorbing the culture of other nations; as a second language is used as an alternative way of expressing a culture of one’s own.
- c) A foreign language tends to produce bilinguals with a passive and receptive attitudes while a second language produces bilinguals with a passive and receptive attitude while a second language produces bilinguals with active and creative interest.
- This creativity can be approached from 2 points of view – how the language is manipulated to express antithetically the context and culture of India and how it is exploited for discourse.
- Language is not an isolated entity. It is deeply rooted in socio-cultural, religious etc.. concepts of Native speaker’s life.
- A writer may make practice of using phonological (graphic) adaptation, lone translation, lone creation as per the requirement of emphasis, etc. and availability.
- Native words find their ways in English because of the non-availability of an equivalent counter-part.
- Another method of expressing the Indian reality is to use a translation on the basis of semantics.
- Advertisements – News paper classifieds, Acronyms such as All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), Delhi University of Teacher Association (DUTA), Discourse pattern – the social meaning of language that is emphasized by socio linguists. Language used to talk to friends, to scold children, conduct business.. i.e. “Accha, I’ll come again.”
- Intimacy and turn-taking conversations
- Language of dominance
- Religious temper and language
- The caste hierarchy figures prominently in discourse
- Semiotics in Indian Literature
- The symbols employed enrich second language